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Header-Program Handbook

Manuscript Guidelines

Ordering the Contents
Preliminary Pages of Manuscript
The Body of the Manuscript
General Manuscript Guidelines
Sample Pages for Theses and Dissertations
University Acknowledgement

The preparation of the final dissertation or thesis manuscript is meant to be a precise process identical to the preparation of any publishable quality manuscript. While the content of a dissertation or thesis is the prerogative of the student and Faculty Advisor, the University establishes the format for final submission. To assure top quality in all documents, the University has standardized the sequence and style of presentation of the final manuscript. The following sections explain in full the University requirements.

Ordering the Contents

The following list indicates the order of arrangement of the sections of the dissertation and thesis as prescribed by the University. All sections are mandatory unless specifically designated as optional. Please place the parts of your thesis or dissertation in the following sequence:

  1. Title Page
  2. Copyright Page (on reverse of Title Page)
  3. Abstract
  4. Biographical Sketch
  5. Dedication (optional)
  6. Acknowledgments
  7. Table of Contents
  8. List of Tables
  9. List of Figures or Illustrations
  10. List of Abbreviations Used (optional)
  11. List of Symbols Under (optional)
  12. Preface (optional)
  13. Text (including a number of chapters)
  14. Appendix (or Appendices if more than one)
  15. Bibliography, Reference, or Works Cited
  16. Glossary (optional)
  17. Index (optional)

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Preliminary Pages of Manuscript

The student's preliminary pages are the title page, copyright notice, and table of contents, acknowledgments, and list of figures, list of tables, abstract, preface and other special sections. The page numbering and order of these pages and information pertinent to their style and structure within the manuscript are outlined in a later section.

Title Page
Copyright Notice
Table of Contents
Abstract
Biographical Sketch
List of Tables
List of Figures or Illustrations
List of Abbreviations Used
List of Symbols Used

Preface

Title Page
The title of your thesis or dissertation should be selected very carefully to represent as accurately as possible the subject content of your manuscript. The words used in the title are essential access points for researchers who may use computerized keyword searching techniques to identify works in various subject areas. An example of an effective title page is included at the end of this section.

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Copyright Notice
A notice of copyright must appear as the sole content of the page immediately following (on the back of) the Title Page. If you fail to include this copyright notice, your thesis or dissertation will be considered in the public domain, unprotected by copyright law and available for unrestricted use. The copyright page is not numbered. The copyright notice should be centered on the page, include your name and date and the statement "ALL RIGHTS RESERVED" in all capital letters, as follows:

  1. your name 20--
  2. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

The copyright symbol ( ) is the lower case "c" which must be circled. Many font packages include this symbol. Your name should appear here (and on the title page and abstract page) exactly the same as it is officially on file with the Office of the University Registrar.

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Table of Contents
Title this section "Table of Contents" in upper case and centered at the top of the page with 1.5 inches of clearance above. Triple space below the title before starting the list of contents. Place the word "page" to the right side of the page under which you will list the page numbers of each section. Double space between sections and indent subsections. List the contents in identical order as presented in the manuscript. An example of an effective table of contents is included at the end of this section.

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Abstract
The abstract of the thesis or dissertation is a very clear and concise summary of the finished work. It should be no longer than 350 words, approximately 1 double-spaced pages. The abstract should state the problem, describe the methods and procedures used, and present the findings and conclusions. The abstract should be double-spaced and all format requirements that apply to the thesis or dissertation apply to the abstract as well.

The heading of the abstract is as follows:

  1. TITLE OF THESIS OR DISSERTATION
  2. Your Name, MS or Ph.D. etc.
  3. Name of University, 20-- (year of conferral)

The title should be centered at the top of the page with 1.5 inches of clearance above. The title should be exactly the same, letter-for-letter, wherever it appears in the document and University forms. Your name should appear here (and on the title page and copyright page) exactly the same as it is officially on file with the Office of the Registrar at Akamai University. The date should be the year of degree conferral, not the date the dissertation was completed. An example of an effective abstract is included at the end of this section.

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Biographical Sketch
The biographical sketch should be written in the third person and not exceed 600 words. It should abide by the same manuscript requirements as the balance of the thesis or dissertation. The sketch should include the educational background and professional achievements of the student. It should also present the student s commitment to the betterment of the human condition and amelioration of major world problems.

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Lists of Tables, Figures and Illustration, Abbreviations and Symbols Used
Separate lists of tables, figures and illustrations, abbreviations used and symbols used should be prepared in the order listed. If even a single table or figure (etc.) is used, a preliminary page must be included with the title exactly as presented, as follows:

List of Tables
List of Figures or Illustrations
Each individual table, figure, and illustration should be numbered in sequence throughout entire manuscript, not by chapter.

Abbreviations
List of Symbols Used
Abbreviations and symbols should be defined in a concise manner and should be presented in alphabetical order.

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Preface
This is an optional preliminary section that permits the author to present some preliminary or introductory notes that orient the reader to the body of the content that will follow.

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The Body of the Manuscript

The body of manuscript includes the scholarly presentation of the academic argument and the supportive materials.

Typical Chapter Headings
Introduction
Review of Literature
Procedures
Findings
Summary, Conclusions, and Recommendations
Endnotes
Bibliography
Appendices

Typical Chapter Headings
A typical traditional thesis or dissertation is divided into a minimum of five chapters of text, followed by endnotes, appendices, and the bibliography, and presented in the following order:

  1. Introduction
  2. Review of Literature
  3. Procedures
  4. Findings
  5. Summary, Conclusions, and Recommendations
  6. Endnotes
  7. Bibliography
  8. Appendix (or Appendices)

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Introduction
In the introductory chapter, students describe the importance and present a justification for the research. Students draw upon demographic statistics, the words of the experts, and point out the meaningfulness of the research to the subculture or academic field it inspects. They should clarify the specific problems being addressed in the research and explain the issues in detail. It is advised that students structure their introductions so they build toward statement of the three main research questions or objectives of their projects. Later, students will be addressing these questions or topics through their review of literature and data gathering.

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Review of Literature
In this chapter, students discuss the literature that has informed their research and they explain the thinking of the experts in their fields of investigation, identifying the major relevant positions within the literature, both pro and con. This chapter presents a scholarly discussion of the literature or carries on an academic argument that justifies some major elements behind the intent of the research. The review of literature has an essential relevant connection with the data gathering and should be used by students to generate and justify the content of their data gathering instruments. In this chapter, the three focus questions or objectives derived in the introduction are to be explored thoroughly in light of the currently published research and theoretical literature that informs the disciplines.

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Procedures
This chapter describes what the students have done to address the problems. Students clarify the processes they followed in conducting the research, from conception to completion. They explain the planning process, the initial exercises, and the research activities related to finalizing the end product of the research. Students explain their research methodologies, tests and data gathering devices. If a trial run or field test was initiated, students should explain the procedures and the outcomes. They should clarify the participation and input of outside contributors, the role of assistants or partners in the process, and the role of significant colleagues.

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Findings
This chapter is used to present the results of the research studies, or the results of the qualitative investigations, or surveys of literature. The findings or results are to be presented by reporting in a manner that is void of editorializing. It is best if results are presented using charts, graphs and tables, as appropriate, to summarize information concerning the test sample, the raw data, and statistics.

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Summary, Conclusions, and Recommendations
This chapter is reserved for interpretation (what it all means), summarization, drawing conclusions, and making suggestions for further research or reflection. It is vital that students approach this chapter in a personalized manner. Students need to use this section to draw meaningful conclusions and make professionally mature recommendations. Summary, conclusions, and recommendations must conform to the findings and the literature and not overstep the bound of what is truly observed in the data.

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Endnotes
Students are directed not to use footnotes to cite references throughout the body of text but to use endnotes following the last chapter of text and before the appendix. Endnotes provide greater opportunity for students to be clear and thorough in presenting citations, references and notations. Placing endnotes at the end of the manuscript allows an uninterrupted flow of the text and avoids the confusion that can occur from breaking the orderly presentation of the scholarly discussion and academic argument.

The endnotes are to be numbered in sequence (1, 2, 3 and so on) in a consistent manner throughout the manuscript. Endnote numbers are typed in superscript, such as this, 1 and should follow punctuation marks of all types (except dashes), like this.2 (The endnote number falls inside the parenthesis, if it applies only to the material within the parenthesis. 3) Endnote numbers should not be placed in text headings.

Organize the section titled Endnotes immediately following the last chapter of text and before the Appendix and Bibliography. Endnotes are presented in numerical order, numbered in sequence. Use single spacing within each endnote and double spacing between them.

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Bibliography
The bibliography immediately follows the endnotes. Place the title in upper case and centered at the top of the page with 1 inches of clearance above. Triple space below the title before starting the listings. The listings should be placed in alphabetical order based upon the author of the publication. The author should be entered in directory style, with last name first. Use initials for the first and middle names of the authors. Multiple authors should all be listed, if practical, with the major author listed first. If the author is an organization the listing should include the full name, followed by a period. The publication year should follow, set in parentheses, and then a period. The title of the entry follows next ending with a period. The publisher is next with the city (and state) of publication preceding the name of the publisher, set apart be a colon.

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Appendices
An appendix or series of appendices should be located as a final section of the manuscript. The following materials are appropriate for ordering in the Appendix (or Appendices):

  • Copies of letters sent in the process of the project
  • Original scales or questionnaires
  • Raw data gathered
  • Statistical calculations
  • Instructions for participants in the study
  • Informed consent statements
  • Written consent from copyright holders
  • Permissions regarding research with human subjects or live animals
  • Charts, graphs or tables too extensive to be placed in the body of the text
  • Other important or supplemental information that will be helpful to the reader

The first element of the Appendices is labeled Appendix A and is given a brief descriptive title reflecting the content. The second element is identified as Appendix B and so on. The appendices are listed in the Table of Contents by their letter designation and descriptive title.

Place the title in upper case and centered at the top of the page with 1 inches of clearance above. Triple space below the title before starting the contents. If a section of the Appendix contains a number of separate items, such as a gathering of tables or letters, the first page of that appendix should list the contents and provide page numbers.

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General Manuscript Guidelines

Production of the Manuscript
Copies and Reproduction
Paper
Collating
Typeface
Fonts Allowed
Characters per Inch
Margins after Photocopying
Arrangement and Pagination
Spacing
Equations and Formulas
Text Justification
Widows and Orphans
Figures, Graphs and Tables

The following are guidelines for page composition and presentation within the final manuscript. It is the responsibility of the student to determine and conform to the University s manuscript requirements. If ever in doubt, please consult with your Faculty Advisor for instructions or contact the Office of the University President for a final determination.

Production of the Manuscript
Almost all manuscripts are produced on computers, although quality word processors and typewriters are also allowed. If a computer is used, printing must be on a letter quality or laser printer. Dot matrix printers, even those with letter-quality mode are not acceptable for final copy of the thesis or dissertation. It may be necessary for you to copy your document to diskette and format it for printing on another computer to meet the manuscript requirements of the University.

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Copies and Reproduction
The student may produce the initial draft for review as an original printed copy or a photocopy of acceptable quality. All draft copies must be typed and of good quality. Dot matrix printing is strongly discouraged. The reproduction should be sharp and clear, and the pages free of smudges and extraneous marks. If students have any questions, they should ask in advance of making copies. While the initial drafts may abide by somewhat lower standards, the final manuscripts must adhere to all of the University s written guidelines.

Final copies of theses and dissertations must be clear enough to be read easily and to provide legible microfilm. Dirty pages, and pages containing spots and smudges, whiteouts, roller marks or gray lines are not acceptable and should be prepared to acceptable standards.

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Paper
The dissertation of thesis should be printed on 8 x 11inch paper using only one side of the sheet unless otherwise instructed (copyright). The final manuscript must be printed on acid-free archival white bond paper of not less than 20-pound weight, and not less than 25 percent rag content.

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Collating
Students should assure that final copy of the manuscript is properly collated and that no pages are missing, duplicated or placed in sideways or upside-down. This requires checking each individual page before shipping to the bindery. If errors are not found, binding of the official University manuscript will need to be repeated.

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Typeface
The entire text of the thesis or dissertation, including the footnotes, headers and page numbers, must be produced with the same font or typeface. Exceptions can be made only for tables or figures produced by different technology or graphic artists. Typefaces such as script or other unusual typefaces are not permitted. The same typeface shall be used throughout. Typeface shall be neat, clean and faultless. You must make all corrections with the same typewriter, computer or word processor used for the original document. There should be no erasures, strikeovers or whiteout fluid corrections on the final copies submitted. Such corrections should be made on an original copy, which can then be carefully photocopied in a quality manner onto proper paper.

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Fonts Allowed
Only the following fonts are allowed:

  • Courier 12
  • Princeton 12
  • Palatino 12
  • Bookman 12
  • New Century Schoolbook 12
  • Helvetica 12 or 14
  • Times New Roman 14 (Times New Roman 12 is not acceptable)
  • Note: Symbol 12 is acceptable for symbols.

Characters per Inch
No more than 12 CPI (characters per inch) will be accepted. This standard is set, as it is the maximum allowed for readability on microfilm. To determine the CPI of the final manuscript, place a ruler under a line of text and count the average number of characters in an inch.

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Margins after Photocopying
Margins shall be no less than 1-1/2 inches at the left (to allow for binding), and no less than one inch at the right, top and bottom. The top margin on the first page of each major heading should be 2 inches. Margins are measured from the edge of the page to the beginning of the text. These margins are absolutely necessary for purposes of binding and microfilming. It is recommended that you start with slightly larger margins than stipulated since photocopying may enlarge the text of the document by as much as 2%.

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Arrangement and Pagination
The following plan of page numbering has been standardized and must be observed. The student should assign a number to every page. On the title page and blank page, the number is assigned, but not printed. Preliminary pages are numbered with lower case Roman numerals (beginning with iii, iv, etc.) at the center bottom of the page. The title page, although not numbered, is considered to be the first page of the manuscript. The next page is blank and the numerals are not shown. The third page, usually the beginning of the Table of Contents, is numbered "iii." The copyright goes on the back of the title page.

Numbering Preliminary Pages
Please adhere to the following outline in preparing the numbering of the preliminary pages:

  1. Title Page (i) number not typed on page
  2. Copyright Page (ii) number not typed on page
  3. Abstract not counted and not numbered
  4. Biographical Sketch (iii) type number on page
  5. Dedication (optional) (iv) continue Roman numerals
  6. Acknowledgments continue Roman numerals
  7. Table of Contents continue Roman numerals
  8. List of Tables continue Roman numerals
  9. List of Figures or Illustrations continue Roman numerals
  10. List of Abbreviations Used (optional) continue Roman numerals
  11. List of Symbols Used (optional) continue Roman numerals
  12. Preface (optional) continue Roman numerals
If your dissertation or thesis contains tables, figures or illustrations, you must include the appropriate list in the preliminary pages. If any of the preliminary sections are more than one page in length, give each succeeding page the next Roman numeral. All Roman numerals are placed at the bottom center of the page.

Titles must be used for the Abstract, Biographical Sketch, Acknowledgments, Table of Contents, List of Tables, List of Figures or Illustrations, List of Abbreviations Used, List of Symbols Used, and Preface. Do not place the following titles on their respective pages: Title Page, Copyright Page and Dedication. Chapter numbers should be designated by upper case Roman numerals.

The body of the thesis of dissertation includes the text, Appendix (or Appendices), and Bibliography, References, or Works Cited and each chapter (including each chapter of the text) must have a title. Arabic numbers (1, 2, 3, 4, etc.) should be used in numbering pages of the main text through to the end of the document. No periods, dashes, or words (e.g. "Page") should be used before or after the number. Use continuous Arabic numbers for these sections beginning the count with Arabic number 1 one the first page of text (although it is not written on the page).

Chapters begin on new pages, although sections within chapters do not necessarily. Subheadings should be used to describe briefly the material in each section. Numerals and figures should not be used to designate sections of chapter. On pages carrying major headings, such as the first page of a chapter, and the first page of each appendix and the bibliography, the number is placed at the bottom center of the page. On all other pages, including the text, charts, maps, illustrations, appendices and bibliography, the page number is placed at the top right corner of the page.

Top and bottom margins are measured from the first and last lines of type. Page numbers at the center bottom should be placed with one-half inch clearance from the bottom of the page. Numbers in the upper right corner should have one-half inch clearance from the top and 1 inch from the right side of the page. Placement of page numbers should be as accurate and consistent as possible. The placement of page numbers for appendices and bibliography should follow the same format as for the text.

Variations and slight adjustments in page numbering is allowed only by permission of the Faculty Advisor. For example, if it is discovered at the last minute that there are two pages numbered 99 (typographical error) then the second page should be renumbered 99a. Also, if two pages have been added between 66 and 67, then these additional pages should be numbered 66a and 66b. If pages 23 and 24 are removed, then page 22 should be renumbered 22-24. To minimize this type of adjustment, students are directed to leave pagination as a final operation.

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Spacing
The entire thesis or dissertation manuscript must be typewritten or produced by computer and printed on one side of the paper only. The text shall be double-spaced (approximately three lines of text per inch), except for long quotations, which may be single-spaced and indented. Single spacing should also be used within footnotes. Bibliographies are to be single-spaced within entries but must be double-spaced between entries. The table of contents, list of tables, list of figures or illustrations, list of abbreviations used, list of symbols used and lengthy tables set with the text or appendix should also be single-spaced.

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Equations and Formulas
All equations and formulas must be typed. Hand insertions are acceptable when a computer, word processor or typewriter cannot make the symbol needed or where the handcrafted symbol is of better quality. When necessary, equations may be inserted with non-matching font. All subscripts and superscripts must be large enough to be clearly read on microfilm (test using a 25% text reduction).

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Text Justification
Students are advised to use left justification wherever possible and avoid id use of hyphenation. Styles of justification that cause separation of punctuation from characters and leaves large gaps in the text are not allowed.

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Widows and Orphans
Students are advised to avoid use of widows and orphans wherever possible and theses and dissertations that contain them will not be acceptable. Widows are short lines of text ending a paragraph on the top of the next page. The student should attempt to edit the work to eliminate the widow. A heading or subheading alone at the bottom of a page not followed by any text is considered an orphan. The student should advance the heading to the next page.

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Figures, Graphs and Tables
Figures, graphs and tables should meet the same quality standards as the rest of the manuscript. Figures, graphs and tables should be inserted in the text at the point where they would appear logically, as close as possible to the place in the text where they are mentioned. They should fit within the same margins and should be copied on the same archival paper as required for the balance of the document. Figures, graphs and tables should be numbered consecutively through the text and not be numbered by chapter. If they must be grouped at the back, they should be treated as appendices. If large enough, a table or figure may be centered on a page with no text above or below.

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View Sample Pages for Theses and Dissertations

University Acknowledgement

Akamai University wishes to acknowledge the scholarly contributions of Dr. LaWanna Lease Blount in the development of the University's array of Sample Pages for Theses and Dissertations. These materials have served our students well over the past few years, moving their graduate manuscripts to the highest of possible level of quality. Our gratitude is extended to Dr. Blount for this excellent work.















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Akamai University is internationally accredited by the Accreditation Service for International Colleges (ASIC). The University has earned Premier status with ASIC for its commendable areas of operation. ASIC is an approved accrediting body for the purposes of compliance by the UK Border Agency (UKBA) is a member of the British Quality Foundation (BQF), sits on the Quality Standards Group of UK NARIC, and is one of a number of international accrediting bodies listed in the international directory by the Council for Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA) in the USA and is a member of the CHEA International Quality Group (CIQG).

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