Pacific Journal of Science and Technology

An Interdisciplinary Journal of Research, Theories, and Observations

Volume 14, Number 2

(November/December 2013)

 A Semi-Annual Publication of Akamai University

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The Pacific Journal of Science and Technology (PJST) is a peer-reviewed electronic journal of interdisciplinary scientific research, theories, and observations. PJST is a semi-annual publication of Akamai University, Hilo, Hawaii. The mission of this journal is to provide a non-commercial platform for the dissemination of scientific research and theory across the academic disciplines. We seek to facilitate greater communication between the scientific assembly at Akamai University and the larger scientific community. To this end, the PJST provides a platform for research conducted both inside and outside of our university. As a non-profit institute of higher learning, Akamai University provides this journal as a public service in the spirit of academic and scientific discourse and in support of our institutional mission of improving the human condition. There is no charge to access or reference current or archived research published in PJST.


Editorial Staff



Akamai University

Table of Contents (Vol. 14, No. 2)

Referenced Papers

Engineering and Material Science










Energy and Power







Physics and Atmospheric Physics




Mathematics and Statistics









Information Technology and Communications







Management, Economics, and Education





Chemistry and Biochemistry







Life Sciences and Medicine
















Geology and Earth Science












Environmental Science and Ecology









Disclaimer: The opinions, claims, and conclusions expressed in the articles published in the Pacific Journal of Science and Technology are those of the authors. They do not necessarily reflect the views or opinions of the Pacific Journal of Science and Technology, its editors, Akamai University, its administration, or Board of Directors. The research and theories presented in these articles are solely the claims of the contributing author(s). The Pacific Journal of Science and Technology assumes no responsibility for damages; real or imagined, arising from the use or misuse of information contained in these articles. The Pacific Journal of Science and Technology is provided free to the community as a public service of Akamai University. No part of this journal shall be considered as promotional material or solicitation. Akamai University is not accredited by an accrediting agency recognized by the United States Secretary of Education. Full accreditation information may be viewed at The Pacific Journal of Science and Technology is best viewed with Internet Explorer version 7.0 or better. The International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) for PJST is 1551-7624. Copyright 2004-2012; Akamai University. All rights reserved.