Pacific Journal of Science and Technology


An Interdisciplinary Journal of Research, Theories, and Observations


Volume 15, Number 1

(May/June 2014)

 A Semi-Annual Publication of Akamai University

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The Pacific Journal of Science and Technology (PJST) is a peer-reviewed electronic journal of interdisciplinary scientific research, theories, and observations. PJST is a semi-annual publication of Akamai University, Hilo, Hawaii. The mission of this journal is to provide a non-commercial platform for the dissemination of scientific research and theory across the academic disciplines. We seek to facilitate greater communication between the scientific assembly at Akamai University and the larger scientific community. To this end, the PJST provides a platform for research conducted both inside and outside of our university. As a non-profit institute of higher learning, Akamai University seeks no publication or distribution fees from the PJST. The journal is provided strictly in the spirit of academic and scientific discourse and in support of our institutional mission of improving the human condition.

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Table of Contents (Vol. 15, No. 1)

Referenced Papers

Engineering and Material Science

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Energy and Power

 

Physics and Atmospheric Physics

 

Mathematics and Statistics

 

 

Information Technology and Communications

 

 

 

 

Management, Economics, and Education

 

 

 

 

Chemistry and Biochemistry

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Life Sciences and Medicine

 

 

 

 

Geology and Earth Science

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Environmental Science and Ecology

 

 

Disclaimer: The opinions, claims, and conclusions expressed in the articles published in the Pacific Journal of Science and Technology are those of the authors. They do not necessarily reflect the views or opinions of the Pacific Journal of Science and Technology, its editors, Akamai University, its administration, or Board of Directors. The research and theories presented in these articles are solely the claims of the contributing author(s). The Pacific Journal of Science and Technology assumes no responsibility for damages; real or imagined, arising from the use or misuse of information contained in these articles. The Pacific Journal of Science and Technology is provided free to the community as a public service of Akamai University. No part of this journal shall be considered as promotional material or solicitation. Akamai University is not accredited by an accrediting agency recognized by the United States Secretary of Education. Full accreditation information may be viewed at http://www.akamaiuniversity.us/aboutus.html#7. The Pacific Journal of Science and Technology is best viewed with Internet Explorer version 7.0 or better. The International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) for PJST is 1551-7624. Copyright 2004-2012; Akamai University. All rights reserved.