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Center for Global Health

Course Directory

School of Public Health
Health and Human Services
Applied Health Science
Hospital Administration Program
Toxicology Program

SCHOOL OF PUBLIC HEALTH

PHA 500: Graduate Readings in Public Health (6 credits)
Graduate students pursue detailed readings in the theories, principles and practices in public health. Readings in the field of public health include public health administration, disease prevention and control, health education and promotion, human nutrition, health policy, global health, environmental health, and occupational health. Public health programs also cover bioethics in healthcare, managed care, child health, international health, healthcare for the elderly, mental hygiene, population dynamics and public health, reproductive health in developing countries, and study of aging. This course is required of all Master's students.

PHA 600: Graduate Readings in Public Health (6 credits)
Doctoral students pursue detailed readings in the theories, principles and practices in public health. Readings in the field of public health include public health administration, disease prevention and control, health education and promotion, human nutrition, health policy, global health, environmental health, and occupational health. Public health programs also cover bioethics in healthcare, managed care, child health, international health, healthcare for the elderly, mental hygiene, population dynamics and public health, reproductive health in developing countries, and study of aging. This course is required of all Doctoral students.

PHA 501: Principles of Epidemiology (3 credits)
The course gives students an exposure to basic concepts and principles of epidemiology. Students will learn how to find distribution of disease in populations, determine the causes of disease in the populations, and possible use of interventions, if any. The course provides analytical skills towards evaluation and control of epidemics and other health problems in populations. The course develops in general epidemiological approach to finding disease and initiating intervention.

PHA 504: Public Health Practices (3 credits)
This is an overview course pertaining to public health practice. There are certain public health issues (i.e. operational, policy, management, legal, regulatory), which public health practitioners face on a daily basis. This course examines those issues and more. Local, state, and federal, agencies are involved in public health. The practitioner needs to know how to coordinate the activities of these agencies. Then there is the element of health marketing and public health advocacy, which comes into play in terms of convincing and changing public opinions about some public health issues. The issue of cost, access, and quality of care is always there. The uninsured and underinsured, ethnic groups health care, minority health care are issues of concern as well.

PHA 506: Health Policy (3 credits)
The course will give an overview of the field of health policy and management. It will examine some of the major health policy issues like, cost, access, quality of care, underinsured, uninsured. Then it will examine the politics of health policy in the United States. How different interest groups (i.e. providers, insurers, managed care organizations) play their role in the development of health policies. The main focus of the course will be on health policy issues in the United States although certain international health issues facing other countries will also be examined.

PHA 508: Principles of Environmental Health (3 credits)
The course deals with basic scientific principles involved in environmental health. IT examines multiple of issues affecting human health by physical, chemical, biological, or psycho-social modifications of external environment. The courses will focus on natural and synthetic agents, which pollute air, water, food, soil, and the environment in general. The course will discuss the basic scientific principles developed by chemistry, toxicology, physiology, epidemiology, and molecular biology, behavioral and management sciences, and apply these principles to solve environmental health problems. Some policy issues for environmental protection will also be discussed.

PHA 510: Disease Prevention and Management (3 credits)
This course is a guide to clinical preventive services. The course critically examines evidence for and against scores of preventive services available, and recommends interventions that are effective. The course looks into the health consequences of personal behavior (including the use of drugs, alcohol, tobacco, poor diet, lack of physical activity, for example), and recommends services available to correct such behavior. The course recommends preventive interventions (screening, immunizations, counseling) for clinical and public health practitioners. This course is beneficial to primary care clinicians, including physicians, nurses, nurse practitioners, physician assistants, public health professional and allied health professionals.

PHA 512: Environmental Health and Disease Prevention (3 credits)
The course deals with different environments including personal, indoor, outdoor, community, region, or worldwide. It develops a correlation between effects and impacts of these environments and discusses their long-term and short-term effects on individuals and populations. The course covers a wide range of topics including, occupational hazards, radioactive and hazardous waste, ionizing radiation, unhealthy food-water, environmental pollution, pest control, industrial waste, risk assessment, environmental monitoring, natural and man made disasters. It discusses environmental health problems and how to prevent diseases caused by them.

PHA 513: Recognizing and Preventing Occupational Diseases (3 credits)
Besides knowing about occupational hygiene and occupational disorders, occupational health specialists need to learn about preventive strategies, economics, ergonomics, and production systems. In recent times, the safe and healthy work environment has become an integral part of quality assurance. The course relies upon preventive and social approaches to occupational health. It deals with toxicological modeling in industrial hygiene, the epidemiological approach to study occupational disorders, the importance of psychological conditions for many types of disorder, and specialist knowledge about women and work. It gives an overview of the necessity for an increased awareness of a safe work environment.

PHA 514: Health Promotion (3 credits)
The course emphasizes the knowledge and skills required to reduce behavioral risks. It also covers those elements that engage people more actively in their community affairs, and will enable graduates to participate effectively in the making of health and social policy, in demanding enforcement of regulations on environmental pollutants, and in organizing advocacy for new laws and regulations for an improved environment. Individual risk reduction and education of the electorate for risk reduction are both important, and the course places emphases on both.

PHA 516: Pharmaceutical Issues in Disease Prevention (3 credits)
The course surveys the " Problem Drugs". There are tens of thousands of drugs on the world market today. Most of them are ineffective and some are not even safe. The course examines the public health consequences of these drugs, and surveys a wide variety of drugs including antibiotics, anti-diarrhoeals, analgesics, cough and cold remedies, contraceptives, hormones, psychotropic drugs, growth stimulants and vitamin supplements. The course determines the impact on children, women, and the elderly. It highlights unethical marketing practices of multinational corporations. It offers recommendations to help transform the thinking of health professionals including physicians, pharmacists, policy makers, and students. It also investigates strategies for developing consumer awareness about this problem.

PHA 516: Public Health Surveillance (3 credits)
Public Health Surveillance is essential to disease prevention. It can recognize new diseases and identify upward or downward trends in known diseases. The course differentiates surveillance from public health practice or analytical epidemiological studies; and gives a methodological overview of the subject. The course discusses surveillance systems used in evaluating program effectiveness. It also presents examples of surveillance. Finally, the course deals with disease surveillance at local and state levels, and surveillance techniques used in developing countries.

PHA 520: Environmental Protection Policies (3 credits)
The course deals with air pollution policy, water pollution policy, hazardous waste disposal policy, toxic substance policy, and monitoring enforcement of compliance with regulations. It evaluates the overall effectiveness of environmental regulations, and identifies trends likely to influence future environmental policy. Finally, the course deals with international concerns of global warming, for example, ozone depletion.

PHA 522: Drug Development and Monitoring Drugs (3 credits)
The course surveys the policies and procedures used by Multinational Corporations in the development and marketing of drugs, especially in the developing countries. It examines questionable marketing practices used by the Multinational Corporations (MNCs) in developing countries. Ethical marketing guidelines developed by international watch groups will be discussed. In addition, the safety of drugs will be examined.

PHA 524: Health Care Management (3 credits)
This is a survey course, describing different health services organizations, which go into the total health care system as input. Health care delivery is the output of this complex system. In the process, numerous factors involving technology, human resources, environment, legal/ethical issues, financial resources, market competition, government regulations, access and quality of care, patient outcomes,, etc. The health care managers of today and tomorrow have to learn management techniques like: organizational theory, strategic planning, inter-organizational linkages, managing people, labor relation, occupational safety, acquisitions, mergers, provider/payer compensations, and provider/patient satisfaction. The course covers all that and more.

PHA 526: National Healthcare Delivery (3 credits)
This course gives an overview of the health care system in the United States. The health care system in United States is the most fragmented and complex health care system in the world. It is also the most expensive system in the world. But also, it is the most inadequate system, covering only partially, the people it is suppose to cover. Approximately 40 million people have no health coverage at all. Approximately the same number of people is not covered adequately. The rapid shift to managed health care is making it more difficult to understand the process of health care in America. The course will examine how scores of agencies/programs, numerous funding sources, multitude of insurance plans, and different provider set ups, work. It will also examine various mechanisms through which providers are paid, and services are delivered. To understand this health care delivery system is an education in itself. The course will try to do that.

PHA 528: Computers and Healthcare (3 credits)
Basic computer literacy is introduced with emphasis on computer use by the health care manager. Students explore the application of computer technology to the health care and health insurance industry.

PHA 530: Ethical Issues in Healthcare (3 credits)
Students investigate how the practice of ethics interfaces with health services. The ethical concerns of contemporary issues such as abortion, premature births, the use of life support systems, AIDS, and drug and alcohol abuse are just a few of the issues that will be addressed.

PHA 532: Legal Issues in Healthcare (3 credits)
Students explore the legal process in the United States as it relates to the health care community. An overview of the legal issues that impact the management decisions of the health services administrator is provided. Special emphasis is placed on understanding public accountability and liability, the rights of patients, and the current legal problems faced by health care workers. Supplemental readings are provided related to the law in the students home country.

PHA 534: History of Healthcare (3 credits)
Healthcare and its delivery have changed through out history but have accelerated with the growth of technology. The impact of various technologies in equipment and facilities will be studied. A report will be written from a literature review on a particular segment of the history of healthcare and the impact of technology. The first part of the course gives analysis, history, evolution, and development of the field of public health. "It traces the history of health and community from Greco-Roman world to public health in Middle Ages. It covers the health of people and diseases in Mercantilism and Absolutism period (1500-1750 AD); health in the period of Enchantment and Revolution (1750-1830); Individualism and the Sanitary Movement (1830-1875); the Bacteriological Era and its aftermath". In the second part, the course provides two long historical movements for the development of American Medicine. First, " the rise of professional seventy, and second, the transformation of medicine into an industry, and the growing though still unsettled, role of corporations and the state".

PHA 536: Manager Health Care (3 credits)
The course will discuss main principles of managed care including cost, access and quality of care. It will also discuss various forms of managed health care organizations, the various kinds of incentives these provide to the provider as well as members. Main features of managed care, i.e. promotion of wellness, prevention of disease, early detection of disease, patient education, etc., will be discussed as well.

PHA 538: Introduction to Health Policy (3 credits)
The course will discuss major health policy issues facing health care systems in both public and private sector. The main focus of the course will be the health policy issues in the United States, but also will present health policy issues in international scene as well. The course will survey the evolution of different health care systems, the interest groups, the source of their financing, the quality of care, and access to care under those systems.

PHA 540: Management of Public Health Organizations (3 credits)
This is a survey course, describing different health services organizations, which go into the total health care system as an input. Health care delivery is the output of this complex system. In the process, numerous factors involving technology, people, environment, legal/ethical issues, use of financial resources, market competition, government regulations, access and quality of care, patient outcomes, etc., are involved. The health care managers of to-day and tomorrow have to learn management techniques like: organizational theory, strategic planning, inter-organizational linkages, issues concerning managing people, labor relations, occupational safety, acquisitions, mergers, provider/payer compensation, and provider/patient satisfaction. This course covers all that and more.

PHA 542: Health Care Financial Management (3 credits)
The course provides student with framework of basic financial management principles which non-financial managers need to know for health care managerial functions. Students will learn how to prepare operating budgets, capital budgets, negotiating budgets, performance reports, financial statements. It will also help student develop skills in financial analysis and management decision making.

PHA 544: Marketing Public Health (3 credits)
This course will help students learn basic skills and concepts of marketing and how to use those skills in strategic planning in health care. Integrating marketing principles with public health practice will help to implement and enhance the effectiveness of certain initiatives. Marketing principles, if applied sensibly, can help change public opinion for certain public health issues. The health care professional can use these " Madison Avenue technique," to bring about social change for the good of the community and populations. This course introduces a new paradigm in public health vis-୶is marketing, promotion, and advocacy.

PHA 546: Legal Aspects of Public Health (3 credits)
This course is designed for non-attorney health professionals to acquire working knowledge of law and legal system in the United States. The course describes health related statutory laws, rules, regulations, and guidelines which health managers need to know to manage health care facility. The course specifically deals with tort law, criminal aspects of health care, contracts and antitrust laws, corporate liability, nursing and law, professional liability, information management and health care, patient consent, legal reporting obligations, patients rights and responsibilities, malpractice insurance, end of life issues, issues of procreation, and others.

PHA 548: Continuous Quality Improvement in Health Care (3 credits)
Total Quality Management/Continuous Quality Improvement has come to light as a paradigm shift for quality assurance in the industrial world during 1970s. The fundamental principles used to improve and maintain quality of a "product," in the industrial/consumer world has direct parallelism in health care industry as well. The high quality health care delivery (the product), encompasses many ingredients like planning, organizing, and leading continuous quality improvement, involving clinicians, information systems, diagnostic laboratories, public health organizations, academic health centers, community health centers, patient outcomes, provider/patient satisfaction, management decision making, and economic analysis, etc., all this involve interdisciplinary approach. The course uses the concepts from operations management, organizational behavior theory, health services research, and translates into health continuous quality improvement in health care delivery.

PHA 550: Management Information Systems in Health Care (3 credits)
The focus of the course is to give students basic concepts, methodology, and applications of management systems in an integrated health care delivery. The course provides theories, technology, applications, and future of health information systems. It also gives students view how these systems can generate high quality cost-effective way of delivering health care.

PHA 552: Human Development and Health Care (3 credits)
Human development and Public Health go hand in hand, especially in developing countries. The focus of this course is to study the process of human development vis-୶is public health. Human development brings about economic development and empowerment, which in turn brings about improved public health. This course will deal with selected case studies of certain developing countries.

PHA 554: Role of Multinational Corporations in Public Health (3 credits)
Multinational Corporation, as well as non-governmental agencies have traditionally played a major role in the Public Health field. The MNCs have provided new technology and products to the developing countries via technology transfer in health and pharmaceutical fields. The international non-governmental and professional agencies (NGOs) have delivered health services to the populations where local governments could not take care of the health needs of their own people. Such help has been rendered in epidemics, natural disasters, civil unrest, for example, in a timely manner. This course will study the piece-meal efforts of all of these organizations, and we will endeavor to develop a working model for 21st century, where different agencies can coordinate their efforts to eradicate certain diseases and to prevent the others.

PHA 556: Comparative Study of Healthcare Systems (3 credits)
This is a survey course of health care delivery systems in USA, Canada, UK, Sweden, Germany, China, Australia, Poland, India, etc. After the survey students should be able to develop a model most suitable for health care delivery in their own country, or even suggest a model for USA.

PHA 558: The Health Care System (3 credits)
This course presents an overview of the health care system of the students own country from an historical perspective. Students investigate the health care system as it exists today including links between hospitals, private practice, health care workers, physicians, extended care facilities, and government hospitals. The major difficulties confronting the health care system in a given country should receive special attention.

PHA 560: Principles of Healthcare Management (3 credits)
Students are introduced to the history, principles, and challenges of management. A broad spectrum of management issues are reviewed and related to the health service environment. Important issues in planning and development, leadership, organizational behavior, and personnel management receive special consideration.

PHA 562: Administration of Healthcare Facilities (3 credits)
Students explore readings in managing health care facilities focusing on hospitals. The course covers principles, practices, structure, and delivery of health services.

PHA 564: Effective Leadership in Healthcare (3 credits)
Students investigate what makes a person a leader and why people follow someone willingly without threats or intimidation. Students will learn how to become an effective leader and accomplish extraordinary things.

PHA 566: Managing Human Resources in Healthcare (3 credits)
Students investigate the management of human resources within the health care organization. The general personnel structure and staffing patterns, productivity and performance evaluations, and leadership issues within the health care organization are explored. Effective recruitment, retention, and utilization of professional employees are given major consideration.

PHA 568: Marketing Management in Healthcare (3 credits)
Students explore the key marketing concepts within the health care industry. The course clarifies the importance of pricing, promotion, and distribution of services to the financial success of health service organizations.

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HOSPITAL ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM

HPA 531: Leadership in Healthcare Organizations (3 credits)
This course defines leadership, addresses its importance in modern healthcare and presents the essential qualities, which characterize the effective leader. Suggestions for applying these principles in "real world" management are included. Prerequisites: none. [Instructor: Dr. Deryl Gulliford]

HPA 532: Health Care Finance (3 credits)
This course presents concepts and theories of healthcare finance, teaching analysis of hospital financial statements and financial planning. Also addressed is effective budgeting and departmental/organizational forecasting. Prerequisites: none. [Instructor: Dr. Deryl Guilford]

HPA 533: Health Care Budgeting (3 credits)
This course continues the discussion of healthcare finance and emphasizes practical aspects of budgeting for department managers, VPs and CEOs. Prerequisites: HPA 532. [Instructor: Dr. Deryl Gulliford]

HPA 534: Health Care Human Resource Management (3 credits)
This course covers key concepts of HR as applied to the healthcare administration setting. Concepts include conflict management, managing teams, negotiating, alliances, harassment and others. Prerequisites: none. [Instructor: Dr. Deryl Gulliford]

HPA 535: Health Care Management Information Systems (3 credits)
This course explains the design and use of healthcare information systems, including managed care software, Internet applications, computer-based records, quality assurance, management decision making and forecasting. Prerequisites: none. [Instructor: Dr. Deryl Gulliford]

HPA 536: Medical Staff Administration (3 credits)
This course discusses principles and practices of medical staff management, credentialing, working with physicians and contract issues. Prerequisites: none. [Instructor: Dr. Deryl Gulliford]

HPA 537: Marketing for Health Care (3 credits)
This course covers marketing tools and techniques. Many successful examples from "real world" healthcare organizations are included. Strategic marketing, advertising, promotion, market research and buyer behaviors are all addressed. Prerequisites: none. [Instructor: Dr. Deryl Gulliford]

HPA 538: Negotiations and Conflict Resolution (3 credits)
This course teaches classic negotiating theory utilizing materials from the well-known Karrass negotiating program. Prerequisites: none. [Instructor: Dr. Deryl Gulliford]

HPA 539: Quantitative Analysis for Health Care (3 credits)
This course teaches effective use of quantitative analysis techniques for management decision making in healthcare. Common software applications are addressed. Prerequisites: none. [Instructor: Dr. Deryl Gulliford]

HPA 540: Advanced Project (3 credits)
A comprehensive action project demonstrating key learning and application of HPA program concepts to a "real world" healthcare problem, issue or project. Prerequisites: HPA 531-539. [Instructor: Dr. Deryl Gulliford]

HPA 541: Advanced Project Research Report (3 credits)
Presentation of a written report of the research conducted in HPA 540. Defense of this presentation is required and will include written questions from the mentor and oral defense. [Instructor: Dr. Deryl Gulliford]

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HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES

HHS 500: Readings in Health and Human Services (6 credits)
Graduate students pursue detailed readings in the theories, principles and practices in health and human services. Readings in health and human services include health services administration, safety management in healthcare, managed care, diagnostic technology, physician's assistant services, legal aspects of healthcare, and health information systems. Health services programs also cover health information systems, health economics, biotechnology and health, safety and injury prevention, healthcare technology management, health facility management, health care safety and injury management. This course is required of all Masters students.

HHS 600: Readings in Health and Human Services (6 credits)
Doctoral students pursue detailed readings in the theories, principles and practices in health and human services. Readings in health and human services include health services administration, safety management in healthcare, managed care, diagnostic technology, physicians assistant services, legal aspects of healthcare, and health information systems. Health services programs also cover health information systems, health economics, biotechnology and health, safety and injury prevention, healthcare technology management, health facility management, health care safety and injury management. This course is required of all doctoral students.

HHS 504: Codes and Standards in Healthcare (3 credits)
A study of the building codes, fire codes, healthcare codes and standards that are applicable to healthcare facilities. This will be tailored to the country of the student, but will involve comparison of codes and standards in other countries. The applicable codes and standards in the student's country will be reviewed and interpreted to apply to a healthcare facility. A comprehensive report will be written.

HHS 505: Injury Prevention (3 credits)
Injury can be studied as a disease. Finding the causes of occurrence, identifying those at risk, and intervening to prevent injury can reduce death and disability. The course develops strategies to prevent a variety of injuries. Injury affects all segments of the population, but the poor and minorities bear a disproportionate burden of injury. The course studies underlying causes of injury in terms of social, environmental, and economic conditions for this disparity. Injuries are an enormous public health problem, and they kill more than 150,000 Americans each year. Alcohol and drugs play a role in nearly half of these deaths. Changing social attitude and personal behavior are challenges which public health professionals face. The course recommends, among other things, community- based intervention to prevent or reduce injury.

HHS 507: Clinical Engineering (3 credits)
Clinical engineering is the engineering discipline that relates to patient care. The maintenance of medical equipment and its safe use is part of clinical engineering. After reading texts and articles on clinical engineering, a report will be written for a case study to develop a clinical engineering program.

HHS 509: Healthcare Facility Construction, Maintenance and Repair (3 credits)
The development of a project and cost estimating is required for maintenance, repair and construction of the healthcare physical facility. The project planning must consider how patient care can continue to be given in an effective and safe manner. A construction project will be developed from a case study including a project management plan. A maintenance and repair project will be developed through discussion with administrative and clinical staff in a healthcare facility.

HHS 511: Quality Assurance in Healthcare Facilities (3 credits)
A study of how ISO 9000 can be applied to assure quality facility management and quality healthcare. Quality improvement can improve the facility management and reduce costs. A report will be prepared to show a healthcare facility could become ISO 9000 registered. The report will be based on a real institution.

HHS 513: Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (3 credits)
The heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) is a complicated part of healthcare facility management. It has to take into account such things as infection control, TB and special units such as operating rooms and nurseries. A study will be completed with a paper discussing the special HVAC problems of a healthcare facility from a case study.

HHS 515: Telecommunications and Healthcare (3 credits)
Telecommunications is rapidly changing inside a healthcare facility as well how it connects to the outside world. The lines between telephones, television and computers are blurring to the world of telemedicine and telemaintenance. The facility manager is responsible for the wires and interfaces required making all this work. Through literature search and interviews a paper will be developed on the history and future of telecommunications and telemedicine. A telecommunications system will be developed for a healthcare facility from a case study.

HHS 517: Environmental Audit in Healthcare Facilities (3 credits)
The environment of buildings and grounds can result in a sick building due to poor air quality and grounds that contain hazardous waste. An environmental audit is required to determine where the problems are and non-compliance with regulations. A paper will be written with an environmental audit of a healthcare facility with recommendations for corrective action.

HHS 519: Fire Safety in Healthcare Facilities (3 credits)
Study of fire chemistry, means of fire extinguishment, means of egress and fire prevention measures to include automatic sprinkler systems. This study will include codes that apply to healthcare facilities. The study will be accomplished from reading texts and journal articles and discussion with fire professionals. Codes will be reviewed as applicable to student's country and the International fire Protection Association. A fire prevention and protection plan will be developed for a healthcare facility to take into account patients, employees and visitors.

HHS 521: Quality Improvement and Safety Motivation (3 credits)
Motivation is the key to a good safety program and adult learning is driven by motivation. In many areas of safety there are mandatory training requirements and some can be accomplished with the use of technology. Motivation and adult learning concepts will be studied by literature review. Different training modalities including the use of technology will be reviewed and a paper written on the best approach for different safety training requirements. Quality improvement is another important concept for safety. Through quality improvement accidents and lost time injuries can be reduced. A paper will be developed by applying quality improvement concepts to show how accidents and lost time injuries can be reduced.

HHS 523: Industrial Hygiene and Infection Control in Healthcare Facilities (3 credits)
Study of recognition methods, evaluation techniques and control of environmental hazards, which may effect the employee's health and efficiency. The study will be accomplished from reading texts and journal articles and discussion with industrial hygienists. In addition, students will investigate issues of infection control in healthcare facilities. Infection is a unique hazard for the healthcare industry. With the advent of AIDS and the increasing occurrence of TB, infection control has become important to employees as well as patients. Through reading texts and journal articles, a paper will be written describing the causes and routes of infection and control measures. Solutions to problems in industrial hygiene and infection control will be developed from case studies.

HHS 525: Accident Investigation (3 credits)
Accident investigation requires skill to determine the causative factors of accidents and the implementation of controls of these causative factors to prevent recurrence of accident reports will be written for accident investigations based on case studies or actual situations. Through reading and discussion with safety professionals a paper will be written to describe how to accomplish an accident investigation.

HHS 527: Historical Perspectives in Safety Management (3 credits)
Safety has changed though out history as mankind has developed an understanding of the hazardous nature of materials and an appreciation for human life. Ethical and legal aspects of safety have developed with codes and standards. From a literature review a paper will be written on the history of safety with emphasis on a particular area or time frame.

HHS 529: Risk Management and Job Safety Analysis (3 credits)
Risk management in healthcare institutions is mostly related to patient incidents and loss control through insurance and legal issues. As safety issues have become more important with regard to employees, risk management programs are working with employee safety. Through a literature search and discussion with healthcare risk managers, a paper will be developed describing how a risk management programs functions. Safety professionals must also understand and apply the basic principles of Job Safety Analysis to integrate safety into the performance of specific jobs. The Job Safety Analysis can be incorporated into a standard job analysis. Job Safety Analyses will be written for case studies. From reading texts and journal articles a paper will be written analyzing the major methods for Job Safety Analysis.

HHS 531: Economics of Safety Management (3 credits)
Management is frequently not totally supportive of a safety program because of the cost. The savings as a result of fewer accidents, less lost time and more productive employees must be demonstrated. Through a literature search, a paper will be written analyzing the cost benefits of a safety program. This paper will include direct and indirect cost and savings.

HHS 535: Workplace Violence (3 credits)
Workplace violence is a growing problem especially in high stress work. The jobs in the healthcare industry are some of the highest stress positions. Healthcare facilities may also be located in high crime areas where workplace violence is higher. Through a literature search and discussion with security personnel, a paper will be developed on the causes of workplace violence and recommended prevention and controls.

HHS 537: Healthcare Safety Management (3 credits)
Healthcare institutions must have safety management for employees, visitors, volunteers and their patients. Unsafe acts, equipment failures, fire hazards and other dangerous conditions such as radiation and electrical hazards may have serious consequences that make safety a high priority. Students will explore safety issues related X-rays and radioisotope, lasers and microwaves, and equipment which may cause microshock, macroshock and electromagnetic interference. Through reading texts and discussion with safety personnel, a paper will be developed describing the various safety hazards in a healthcare facility and the controls used.

HHS 539: Facility Management in Healthcare (3 credits)
A facility manager in a healthcare facility must be aware of the facility structure and equipment support for the delivery of healthcare. The changes in healthcare delivery and technology require changes in the facility and its management. Through a literature search and visits with healthcare providers a paper will be developed to discuss how facility management must change to support healthcare delivery.

HHS 541: Strategic Planning in Facility Management (3 credits)
Facility management for a healthcare facility must be driven by a strategic plan and have a formal business plan. A business plan will be developed for facility management in a healthcare institution from a case study. This plan must be driven by a strategic plan that supports the institutions strategic plan.

HHS 543: Environmental Management in Healthcare Facilities (3 credits)
Housekeeping is an important aspect to healthcare facility management. Infection control has to be considered as well as the physical appearance to patients and visitors. Environmental services are impacting with new finishing materials and cleaning technology. Through a literature search, papers will be written on Environmental Management Services and changing technology and on the impact to patient care.

HHS 545: Equipment Management in Healthcare (3 credits)
The medical equipment and the physical plant equipment represent a major investment and cost of operations for a healthcare facility. Safe and effective patient care depends on the operation of the equipment. A good equipment management program starts with the purchase of equipment and ends with disposal of the equipment. A paper will be written describing an equipment management plan for a healthcare facility that will meet accreditation requirements, compliance requirements and minimizing the cost of operation without impacting patient care.

HHS 547: Utilities and Energy Management (3 credits)
Utilities and energy is a significant cost for a healthcare facilities operation. Good energy management is a way to reduce costs but it must not interfere with or reduce patient comfort and care. An energy management plan will be developed for a health care facility considering changing technology and distribution of utilities.

HHS 549: Information Management in Healthcare (3 credits)
A healthcare delivery system is driven by automated information and facility management must assure that the system is working and secured. Technology is developing rapidly so patient records are merged from equipment readouts and automated doctors and nurses notes. Students develop a scholarly paper through interviews and literature search to show how information systems are developing in healthcare and how they are managed and secured.

HHS 551: Occupational Safety Management(3 credits)
The course is based on the premise that "machines do not cause accidents, people do. One needs to change human behavior to bring about safety in the work place. It requires a change of culture and team effort.

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APPLIED HEALTH SCIENCE

HSC 500: Readings in Health Science (6 credits)
Graduate students pursue detailed readings in the theories, principles and practices in the applied health sciences. Readings include biochemistry, biotechnology, toxicology, pharmaceutics, pharmacology and drug reaction, drug resistance, drug development, human genetics and genetic counseling, and gene therapy. Applied health science programs also focus on epidemiology, microbiology, immunology, human anatomy and physiology, medicinal chemistry and molecular biology. This course is required of all Master's students.

HSC 600: Readings in Health Science (6 credits)
Doctoral students pursue detailed readings in the theories, principles and practices in the applied health sciences. Readings include biochemistry, biotechnology, toxicology, pharmaceutics, pharmacology and drug reaction, drug resistance, drug development, human genetics and genetic counseling, and gene therapy. Applied health science programs also focus on epidemiology, microbiology, immunology, human anatomy and physiology, medicinal chemistry and molecular biology. This course is required of all Doctoral students

HSC 502: Health Science Principles (3 credits)
The course deals with certain basic concepts and principles, which form the basis of health sciences. The scientific principles relate to general biotechnology, therapeutic biotechnology, chemotherapy, structure/activity relationship, pharmaceutics, enzymology of disease and therapy, genetics and gene-therapy, hormones and hormone-therapy, principles of diagnostic technology, nutrition, biochemistry of nutrition, receptors and pharmacological actions.

HSC 504: Biostatistics in Healthcare (3 credits)
The course deals with basic concepts of biostatistics. Students will learn statistical skills for collecting, organizing, analyzing, evaluating, and interpreting data. The first part of the course deals with descriptive statistics, graphical and tabular presentations, and group comparisons, leading to finding among other things, burden of disease in populations and association of risk factors and disease. The second part of the course deals with probability theory, statistical inferences, and hypothesis testing.

HSC 506: Biochemistry (3 credits)
This course deals with fundamentals principles of biochemistry, including process of life, biological molecules, amino acids, polypeptides, proteins, polysaccharides, sugars, lipids, enzymes and their properties, structure, and functions in biological systems.

HSC 508: Human Genetics (3 credits)
The course deals with the introduction and history of human genetics and fundamental concepts of genetics. It starts with basic cell biology, structure and function of genes and chromosomes. Then it goes into genetic variations and its origin and detection. It then explains autosomal dominant and recessive inheritance, sex-linked inheritance, clinical cytogenetics, biochemical genetics, immunogenetics, developmental genetics, gene mapping, and cloning, cancer genetics, multi-functional inheritance and common diseases, genetic screening, genetic diagnosis, and gene therapy. Finally, the course also deals with clinical genetics and genetic counseling

HSC 510: Principles of Medicinal Chemistry (3 credits)
The course deals with introduction and historical aspects of medicinals of plant origin, biopharmaceutical properties of drugs, structural features and pharmacological activity, theoretical aspects of drug design, receptors and drug action theory, drug metabolism, and various classes of drugs, both of natural and synthetic origin. Structure-Activity Relationship of various classes of drugs is also discussed in details as well as the drugs used for various diseases.

HSC 512: Metabolism (3 credits)
The course deals with basic concepts of metabolism in biological systems. Various forms of metabolism and metabolic pathways, including glycogen metabolism, citric acid cycle, electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation, carbohydrate metabolism, photosynthesis, lipid metabolism, amino acid metabolism, energy metabolism, and nucleotide metabolism are discussed. This course gives an over all view of biological transformations in living systems

HSC 514: Disease Prevention and Human Nutrition (3 credits)
The course deals with applying nutritional science to public health and disease prevention issues, including assessing community needs for nutritional services, reaching out to those at high risk, help develop community and state nutritional policies, serving women, infant and children, promoting the health of the adults. It also discusses providing nutritional services in primary care, planning and evaluating nutritional services, marketing nutritional programs and services, providing nutritional education, helping change eating habits for good nutrition, and safeguarding food supply. The course deals with various aspects of nutrition, including: foundations of community nutrition, nutrition policy and health care reform, food borne illnesses, nutrition for pre-schoolers, nutrition for school-age children, adults and their nutrition needs, primary prevention of diseases, secondary and tertiary prevention of diseases, i.e. coronary heart disease, cancer, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity, osteoporosis, alcoholism, arthritis, and renal disease. The course gives up to date knowledge about nutrition and disease prevention.

HSC 516: Physiology (3 credits)
The course deals with basic concepts of human physiology, including cell physiology, body process and function, nervous system, muscle, cardiovascular system, respiratory system, gastrointestinal system, and endocrine system.

HSC 518: Pharmacology (3 credits)
The course deals with general principles of pharmacology, including pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. More specifically, the course involves in the discussion of chemical mediators in pharmacology, drugs affecting major organ systems, drugs affecting the central nervous system, chemotherapy of infections, chemotherapy of malignant diseases, individual variations in drug actions, drug interactions, harmful effects of drugs, and gene therapy.

HSC 520: Toxicology (3 credits)
The course begins with the history and scope of toxicology. It then goes into general principles of toxicology, including absorption, distribution, and excretion of toxins, biotransformation of toxins, chemical carcinogenesis, genetic toxicology, and teratogens. The course then leads to systemic toxicology, including toxic responses of toxins to blood, immune system, liver, kidney, respiratory system, nervous system, heart and vascular system, skin, reproductive system, and the eye. Lastly, course deals with the toxic effects of various toxic agents. The toxic agents discussed are pesticides, metals, solvents and vapors, radiation and radioactive materials, animal toxins, and plant toxins. The course also touches on environmental toxicology.

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TOXICOLOGY PROGRAM

TOX 501: Medical Issues in Legal Cases of Toxicology (3 credits)
This course covers the legal aspects of poisonings. It then covers the legal regulation related with the sale and use of drugs. Then it extends to acquire knowledge about the incidence of poisoning and the various prevention strategies in different parts of the world. Then it covers the skill of identifying a poison in its true form, like various plant poisons and animal poisons e.g: Cannabis Indica, Calatropis and various snakes and scorpions. The course then covers the diagnosis of poisoned patients by signs and symptoms and their differential diagnosis in relation to disease. The management of poisoning cases is an integral part of this course that deals with the first aid care, basic principles of management, collection of body fluids for future analysis, symptomatic treatment and knowledge of specific antidotes. [Instructors: Dr. Vijay P. Gupta and others]

TOX 502: General Principles in Toxicology (3 credits)
The course begins with the history and scope of toxicology. It then goes into general principles of toxicology, including absorption, distribution, and excretion of toxicants, bio-transformation of toxicants, chemical carcinogenesis, genetic toxicology and teratogens. The course then leads to systemic toxicology, including toxic responses of toxins to blood, immune system, liver, kidney, respiratory system, nervous system, heart and vascular system, skin, reproductive system, and the eye. Lastly, course deals with the toxic effect of various toxic agents. The toxic agents discussed are pesticides, metals, solvents and vapors, radiation and radioactive materials, animal toxins, and plant toxins. The course also touches on environmental toxicology. [Instructors: Dr. Vijay P. Gupta and others]

TOX 503: Clinical Toxicology (3 credits)
The course starts with the acquisition of knowledge regarding the mechanism of absorption, distribution, transformation and elimination of drugs. Then it goes on to pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic principles and the various factors responsible for the process. It covers various methods available for drug screening for patients poisoned with unknown drugs. The next step of this course expects the student to acquire the knowledge about the therapeutic drug monitoring, its principles and methodology available, common drugs to be monitored. Lastly the course covers the drug of abuse, drug addiction, drug dependence and drug overdose. [Instructors: Dr. Vijay P. Gupta and others]

TOX 504: Forensic Toxicology (3 credits)
The course begins with the fair knowledge of laws relating to poisons, its sale and use. It then goes into various poisons used for human and animals and moves to classify the poisons on the basis of their characteristic and their availability in the domestic setup. The course covers the duties of the medical practitioner in cases of poisoning and the criteria of diagnosing poisoning in living as well as dead. The course then leads to acquire the knowledge of post-mortem findings in various poisoning cases, radioactive substances and their effects on human health and food poisoning. The course extends to issues like drug addiction, drunkenness, anesthetic deaths and use of gases in war like scenario. [Instructors: Dr. Vijay P. Gupta and others]

TOX 505: Industrial Toxicology (3 credits)
This course begins with acquiring the knowledge regarding various legal regulations governing the industrial health and compensation in lieu of disease or disability. Then it goes into the various safety programs and rehabilitation policies related with occupational hazards. It further extends to the new occupational carcinogens, diagnosis, manifestations, treatment and the role of the physician in such cases. It further covers human development and health problem in relation to industrial workers. [Instructors: Dr. Vijay P. Gupta and others]

TOX 521: Developmental Toxicology and Teratology (3 credits)
This course begins with the basic concept of teratology and the factors governing teratogenecity. It then extends to acquire more knowledge about the recent developments in teratology and newer teratogens identified. If further gives an insight into drug prescribing in pregnancy during the period of organogenesis. The course covers the various aspects of disease inheritance. Lastly it deals with the prenatal diagnostic methods to identify the mothers at risk. [Instructors: Dr. Vijay P. Gupta and others]

TOX 522: Biochemical Toxicology (3 credits)
This course will emphasize the actions of toxicants and assessment of cellular damage. This will include the various metabolic pathways involved in the metabolism of different therapeutic and non-therapeutic substances. This course will cover the toxicant effect on vital organs like brain, heart and liver. [Instructors: Dr. Vijay P. Gupta and others]

TOX 523: Principles of Pharmacology and Toxicology (3 credits)
This course deals with the general principles of Pharmacology and Toxicology including pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. The course then leads to systemic approach of drug action on various systems of human body and its toxic response. [Instructors: Dr. Vijay P. Gupta and others]

TOX 524: Advanced Toxicology (3 credits)
The course begins with acquiring the knowledge about various analytical techniques used in the field of toxicology. Then it deals with the poisons responsible for genetic mutations. Further deals with chemical carcinogens and its mechanism. The course then leads to the knowledge to toxicity caused by trace elements and natural toxins. It further gives an insight into in-vivo and in-vitro testing techniques. Lastly it covers the mechanism of resistance and tolerance development to toxicants. [Instructors: Dr. Vijay P. Gupta and others]

TOX 525: Biotransformation of Xenobiotics (3 credits)
The course begins with acquiring the common knowledge of xenobiotics. It then goes to the different phases of reaction governing the metabolism of toxicants. It covers the various factors responsible for the metabolism of xenobiotics and their mode and route of excretion. [Instructors: Dr. Vijay P. Gupta and others]

TOX 526: Recent Advances in Pharmacology (3 credits)
The course begins with the basic principles of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Then it goes to the recent development and introduction of new therapeutic agents and their effect on the various systems of human body. Lastly the course deals with the drug interactions. [Instructors: Dr. Vijay P. Gupta and others]

TOX 530: Toxico Kinetics (3 credits)
The course begins with acquiring the basic concepts of toxico kinetics and toxico dynamics. Then it moves to toxicokinetics analysis models and physiological compartmental models. Further the course covers the various terminologies like LD50, bioavailability etc., frequently used in the field of toxicology. The course then leads to the various aspects of toxicokinetics like absorption, protein binding and clearance etc. Lastly it covers the drug concentrations and age dependent factors related to distribution, metabolism, and elimination of various toxic substances. [Instructors: Dr. Vijay P. Gupta and others]

TOX 531: Carcinogensis (3 credits)
The course begins with the basic concept of carcinogenesis and its mechanism. Then it deals with the DNA damage and repair. It further moves to acquire the knowledge of various anticipated carcinogens and the various technologies and manufacturing process known to the carcinogenic. Lastly it covers the various reproductive disorders produced by carcinogens and various neoplastic disorders. [Instructors: Dr. Vijay P. Gupta and others]

TOX 532: Recent Advances, Methods and Terminology in Toxicology (3 credits)
The course begins with the basic knowledge about the common laboratory techniques, specimen collection, sources of variation etc. Then it demands a detailed knowledge about various latest analytical techniques and instrumentation. It further goes on to the criteria of selection and evaluation of various methods and clinical interpretation of laboratory procedures. The course extends to various quality control methods and computerization of a laboratory. [Instructors: Dr. Vijay P. Gupta and others]

TOX 533: Toxicology Research (3 credits)
The actual conduct of research is a very challenging task because it required different skills and abilities on the part of researchers. Initially one may think that researchers simply need to be knowledgeable in the area of their specialty. Although such knowledge is essential but it is not certainly sufficient for the task. This course will help in exposing the students to develop the diversity of skills, which researchers are required to have. [Instructors: Dr. Vijay P. Gupta and others]

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Akamai University is internationally accredited by the Accreditation Service for International Colleges (ASIC). The University has earned Premier status with ASIC for its commendable areas of operation. ASIC is an approved accrediting body for the purposes of compliance by the UK Border Agency (UKBA) is a member of the British Quality Foundation (BQF), sits on the Quality Standards Group of UK NARIC, and is one of a number of international accrediting bodies listed in the international directory by the Council for Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA) in the USA and is a member of the CHEA International Quality Group (CIQG).

Akamai University
187 Kino`ole Street
Hilo, Hawaii 96720 USA